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the lower karoo coal k23 of the mid

Coal. Zimbabwe hosts large reserves of coal in the Lower Karoo rocks of the mid Zambezi Basin and the Save-Limpopo basin. Over 29 coal localities are known with an estimated resource of more than 12 billion tonnes. Production was previously confined to the Zambezi Valley but recently there has been limited coal production from the Sengwa ...

Zimbabwes Mineral Potential Ministry of Mines and

Coal. Zimbabwe hosts large reserves of coal in the Lower Karoo rocks of the mid Zambezi Basin and the Save-Limpopo basin. Over 29 coal localities are known with an estimated resource of more than 12 billion tonnes. Production was previously confined to the Zambezi Valley but recently there has been limited coal production from the Sengwa ...


LOWER KAROO IN THE MID-ZAMBEZI BASIN (ZIMBABWE) LUBIMBI LUSULU BUSI -SENGWA KAONGA SANYATI UPPER KAROO Tillite Lower Hwange Sandstone Black Shale and Coal Group Upper Hwange ... Lower Coal-Shale Lower Sandstone Deweras Wacke Tillites and Varvites K0 K1 K2 K4 K5T K5R K5C K5H K5d e K5c K5b K5a K5d K5c

Significant mineral variations in the lower Karoo deposits

Dec 01, 2017 Close mobile search navigation. Article navigation. Volume 93, Number 5-6

Mining in Zimbabwe Projects IQ

Zimbabwe hosts large reserves of coal in the Lower Karoo rocks of the mid Zambezi Basin and the Save-Limpopo basin. Over 29 coal localities are known with an estimated resource of more than 12 billion tonnes. Production was previously confined to the Zambezi Valley but there has been limited coal production from the Sengwa coalfields near Gokwe ...

2 Lopo Vasconcelos Fossil Fuel

2.2. KAROO IN TETE Lower Jurassic Rift Mozambique Coal Conference, 02.10.2013, Johannesburg, South Africa Fluvial-glaciogeniccharacteristics Basal conglomerates, sandstones, coallyargillites and siltites. Isolated patches, lowest depressions of Pre-Karoo landscape General Sequence of Formations V ziFormation (base Upper Carboniferous) LOWER ...

Organic Petrology Thermal Maturity Geology and

May 16, 2007 Data concerning organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Karoo coal measures (Lower Permian) are of considerable importance in determining the hydrocarbon potential of sediments in the rift-valley and half-graben complexes of the Luangwa and Zambezi valleys of eastern and southern Zambia, respectively, and in the extensive sedimentary basin developed on relatively stable



tens wiredspacewitsacza

lens was the Sigma Colliery where typical Middle Ecca assemblages were obtained. Overburden No Karoo strata younger than Middle Ecca occur at Vereeniging, the coal measures being directly overlain over much of the area by about 0,5 m of Recent river gravels, followed by about 0,5 m of top-soil.

A Review of Uranium Deposits in the Karoo Supergroup of

Introduction Two types of uranium deposits are present in strata of the Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. These are (1) fluvially-deposited, sandstone-hosted, peneconcordant, tabular deposits in the Late Permian lower Beaufort Group (Adelaide Subgroup) and Late Triassic Molteno and Elliot Formations within the main Karoo Basin, and (2) coal-hosted deposits in the Late Permian uppermost part ...

Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments of the Late

Dec 11, 2013 The late Palaeozoic coal-bearing Madzaringwe Formation of the Karoo Supergroup in the Tshipise-Pafuri Basin in the Limpopo Province, South Africa, records part of the infill of a passive continental margin terrain. Lithofacies analysis was performed with a view to deduce the nature of depositional environments of the Formation. Sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic evidence

Fossil Woods from the Upper Carboniferous to Lower

Sep 04, 2016 MacRae CS (1988) Palynostratigraphic correlation between the Lower Karoo sequence of the Waterberg and Pafuri coal-bearing basins and the Hammanskraal plant macrofossil locality, Republic of South Africa. Memoirs Geological Survey of South Africa 751217. Google Scholar

Major Mines amp Projects Forzando Mine

Forzando geology. Highveld coalfield hosts up to five coal seams in the middle Ecca Group sediments of the Karoo Supergroup. The stratigraphic sequence in the mine area includes five coal seams that can be correlated with seams found in the Witbank coalfield, named from the base upwards as seam 1 (S1), seam 2 (S2), seam 3 (S3), seam 4 (S4) and S5.


LOWER KAROO IN THE MID-ZAMBEZI BASIN (ZIMBABWE) LUBIMBI LUSULU BUSI - SENGWA KAONGA SANYATI UPPER KAROO Tillite Lower Hwange Sandstone Black Shale and Coal Group Upper Hwange ... Lower Coal-Shale Lower Sandstone Deweras Wacke Tillites and Varvites K0 K1 K2 K4 K5T K5R K5C K5H K5de K5c K5b K5a K5d K5c

Gwembe Coal Formation Karoo Supergroup MidZambezi

Mar 01, 1993 OSTI.GOV Conference Gwembe Coal Formation, Karoo Supergroup, Mid-Zambezi valley, southern Zambia a fluvial plain environment

PDF Sedimentology of the lower Karoo Supergroup fluvial

It has been proposed (Catuneanu et al., 1999Bordy, 2000) that during the accumulation of the Basal Unit the Tuli Basin occupied the back-bulge setting of the Karoo foreland system, with accommodation being primarily provided by flexural subsidence.Fig. 1 .1The Late Carboniferous-Middle Jurassic Karoo Supergroup in Southern Africa and the Tuli ...

Geological Note On The Coal Potential Of Mashonaland West

Introduction Coal occurrence in Zimbabwe is restricted to areas which are host to the Karoo sedimentary Supergroup. Mashonaland is host to such a sedimentary sequence which is restricted to the northern and western parts of the province. Coal occurrence has been reported in the Mana Pools area which forms part of the Mid-Zambezi Valley of the Hurungwe District and in the lower Charara valley ...

Karoo Rift basins of the Luangwa Valley Zambia

The Lower Karoo consists of basal glacial deposits overlain by a sequence of interbedded coal, shale and siltstone, and capped by a very thick (up to 5000 m) lacustrine section of interbedded siltstone and mudstone. The Upper Karoo consists of interbedded coarse sandstones and siltstones thought to be of braided stream and flood plain origin.

Economic Geology Zambia Mining

The bulk of the coal has come from the Maamba coal mine, an open-cast operation in the southern part of the country near Lake Kariba. The Maamba deposit and other known coal occurrences are confined exclusively to the lower-Karoo Gwembe Formation, within the series of fault-controlled basins that comprise the Mid-Zambezi Rift Valley.

Exploration Potential Zambia Mining

Coal Additional coal resources are most likely to be found in the fault-bounded Karoo basins of the Mid-Zambezi Rift, particularly in the Mulungwa Coalfield, the area between the Mulungwa and Siankondobo Coalfields, and in the Siambabala area. Some limited potential also exists in the Luangwa and Luano Valleys. Hydrocarbon

Tectonic and lithological constraints on the evolution of

Bennett JD (1989) Review of Lower Karoo coal basins and coal resource development in parts of southern and central Africa with particular reference to Malawi. Br Geol Surv Tech Rep WC/89/21 1989173. Google Scholar Bloomfield K (1957) The geology of the Ngana coalfield, Karonga District. Bull Geol Surv Nyasaland 8146

DATABASE OF MINERAL International Workshop on

Western,midZambezi and Eastern part of Zambia have favourable history of Lower Karoo hydrocarbons generations and Upper karoo development of structural traps during rifting. yMicrobial prospecting for hydrocarbons is based on the seepage of light

PDF Geophysical and hydrogeologic investigation of

A preliminary analysis of the groundwater recharge to the Karoo formations, mid-Zambezi basin, Zimbabwe. By Torleif Dahlin and G. Barmen. The use of Time Domain Electromagnetic method and Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding to map groundwater salinity in the Barotse sub-basin, Zambia.

Permian stratigraphy and palynology of the Lower Karoo

Jan 14, 2021 Permian stratigraphy and palynology of the Lower Karoo Group in Mozambique a 2020 perspective ... The new information gained mainly from the study of the Moatize-Minjova Coal Basin is the basis for a better understanding of the regional biostratigraphy, as well as of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions during the Permian ...

Integrated Vitrinite Reectance and Apatite Fission Track

Karoo is well represented along the Zambezi river valley forming several intra-cratonic basins separated by horsts consisting of igneous and high grade metamorphic Proterozoic rocks. One of the main horst blocks is located be-tween the Cahora Bassa region and Tete city, separating the Middle Zambezi Basin and the Lower Zambezi Basin.


Mountains toward lower latitudes, infilling foreland basins, and capped by volcanics generated in con-junction with the rifting of eastern Gondwana (Cox 1970). The Karoo succession begins with Dwyka Group glacial sediments. The Dwyka is followed by the marine and coal-bearing Ecca Group, the richly fossiliferous and mainly fluviatile Beaufort ...

GEOL 102 The Mesozoic Era I TriassicJurassic Geology

Jan 14, 2011 The Coal Gap nearly no coal or other organic rich terrestrial beds in Lower and Middle Triassic deposits. May be due to loss of major coal-forming organisms, but paleosol mineralogy suggests low oxygen levels. If charcoalification is a necessary precursor for coal formation, perhaps low oxygen level inhibited charcoalification and hence no coal.

ABOUT COAL BED METHANE CBM Kalahari Energy Botswana

According to the ARI feasibility study, the main coal-bearing sequence in Botswana appears to consistently have two or three principal coal seams of good quality. The lower most seam, referred to as the Morupule Main seam is generally 2 to 3 metres thick with a second 3 to 4 metre seam (the Lotsane seam) lying about 15 to 20 metres above.

By Alexander Thomas Wheeler

In Main Karoo Basin, the Permian Ecca Group hosts economically important coal deposits within the Witbank and Highveld Coalfields. The most significant deposits are located in the Artinskian/Kungurian-aged No. 2 Coal Seam. The post-glacial fluvio-deltaic deposits represent an important shift in climate in the early Permian.


50 TCF in the Karoo basin, there would be an annual economic impact (at constant 2010 prices) of more than R80,000m to R200,600m to GDP (around 3.3% and 9.6% respectively of total 2010 GDP. Coal mining value added during 2010 equated to 1.8% of total GDP), around R35,500m to

Lithostratigraphy palaeontology and sedimentary

than 10 000 m of Karoo (Permian-Triassic), and younger (Jurassic-Cretaceous) sediments. The research has led to the development of a lithostratigra phy for the Lower Zambezi Rift Basin, which differs consi derably from that of the Mid-Zambezi Rift Basin to the west (Bond, 1967 Tables 1 and 2). The establishment of the new

Recherche uO Research Sedimentology tectonic framework

Lower and Upper groups are recognised in the Karoo, with their contact approximately at the Permian-Triassic boundary. From base to top, the Lower Karoo Group is subdivided into the Siankondobo Sandstone, Gwembe Coal, and Madumabisa Mudstone formations and the Upper Karoo Group into the Escarpment Grit, Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone, Red ...

Passeys LogR method in coals of the Central Kalahari

The Kalahari Karoo Basin is one of several basins in southern Africa filled with Late Carboniferous to Jurassic sediments that are primary targets for Permian aged coal. In order to determine the Coalbed Methane (CBM) potential of the Central Kalahari Karoo Basin, 9 exploration boreholes were drilled.

HydrocarbonRich Groundwater above ShaleGas

The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, spans an area of more than 200,000km2 and underlies a majority of the country (Aarnes et al. 2011 Figure 1). This sedimen-tary basin developed as a large retro-arc foreland basin behind the Cape Fold Belt between the late-Paleozoic to mid-Mesozoic (Catuneanu et al. 2005). The Karoo

Permian Period Occurrence and distribution of Permian

Coal-bearing Lower and Upper Permian bedsup to 3 km (1.9 mi) thickare widely distributed in Australia, peninsular India (the lower part of the Gondwana System), southern Africa (the lower part of the Karoo System), the Kuznetsk Basin of western Siberia, the Paran Basin of southern Brazil, and the Precordillera Basin of western Argentina ...

GEO ExPro The Hydrocarbon Potential of Onshore Namibia

The Namibian Karoo Basins New Petroleum Target. Karoo-aged basins hosting late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic strata form another set of basins. In the 80s the Karoo basins were the target for coal exploration, and only more recently have they been considered as a hydrocarbon exploration target.

Palynological records of Gondwanas midPermian

the lower part of the formation reveal a mid-Permian (Roadian) age, corresponding to the stratigraphic position of the Collingham Formation in the Namibian part of the Karoo with an absolute age of 270 Ma obtained from a tuff (Stollhofen et al., 2000). The samples from the lower Collingham Formation show a very similar composition as samples ...

Jo227o Marques Academiaedu

Abstract The lower Permian Moatize Formation is an important stratigraphic unit of the Karoo Supergroup of the Moatize-Minjova Coal Basin, Tete Province, Mozambique. The shales from this formation yielded type II-III kerogen, high TOC values (1.3 31 wt.%) and Hydrogen Index (HI) low to moderate (70 270 m...